Written by: Dr. Shams Ragheb
The influence of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – in Arabic rhetoric cannot be estimated on
Ages have passed, except for those who knew how Arabic rhetoric was before him, and how it became
• The predestination has prepared for the Messenger of God – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – to be a parable
The highest of the excellent preacher in form and substance, but in terms of form, we are
We know that historians of rhetoric count the visual appearance of the person of the orator
Among the motives for his success, and the evidence of his success, the eminent preacher is clean and luminous
The one with a full voice and open memorization will have signs of success just by seeing him, as hearts are more drawn to him and more eager to hear him. 1
Public speaking is in degrees one above the other, and orators vary and differ
In their rhetorical ability, there is the orator, the reader, who adheres to
Literally in the written sermon, and there is the preacher who memorizes the sermon in its details and narrates it to his audience, and there is the preacher
The impromptu issued by a sea of sciences and arts, and a rich dictionary
A wealth of words and phrases, and a vast store of evidence
The Qur’anic, hadith and poetic ones, he disposes of it as he pleases, and he is skilled in formulating his sermon and weaving its phrase as his conscience and reason dictate to him.
In proportion to the situation in which he lives.
1- The reader’s sermon:
He is the one who prepares his sermon mentally, sets the main lines for it, and branches out from it the important basic thought that he aspires to
processing it, collecting the appropriate material for it, and formulating his ideas in
A sober linguistic dress, revising its words, and studding its expressions with what was given
From a graphic structural talent, then read it on the pulpit carefully
Taking into account the loudness of the voice and the diversity of its tones and layers in situations
Excitement and agitation, and the tendency to calm and dignity in the areas of the explanation
Detail and quality of delivery.
2- Al-Khatib Al-Hafiz:
He is the preacher who goes through the same previous stages in preparing his sermon:
Choosing the topic, collecting the material, formulating ideas, and adding to the
This is a courageous literary stage, and an important one represented in memorizing the entire sermon, memorizing it carefully, and delivering it on the pulpit by heart.
This method of good memorization is the way to improvisation
And the craft of the eloquent orator, but its dangers and warnings are a scourge
The forgetfulness that afflicts every human being, the preacher is prone to forgetfulness.
And the matter will be very embarrassing for him if he forgets a section
Whoever gave him a sermon or forgot a proof, he proceeded to explain it and elaborate on it.
The cure for such a scourge is to accustom the preacher himself to behave well
Dispose of when necessary.
3- The improvised speaker:
He is the one who delivers his sermon relying on his rhetorical faculty, which
It grew by reading, memorizing, and continuous educational attainmen
Strong psychological emotion during his creation of the rhetorical phrases and sentences with which he addresses his audience, and his sermon is the result of the moment when he
He lives it with his fans, so it mixes with their souls and their minds interact with it
and themselves, and their ears will hold them. And the sermon and the preacher’s phrases
Usually derived from the tender circumstance in which he lives and lives.
• This kind of sermon is not improved except by someone who has a deep experience and a precise experience in the field of public speaking, so he is bold-hearted,
Rich in knowledge, quick-witted, rich in language, self-confident.
• As for him whose knowledge is shallow, his statement is joking, his heart flutters, and he becomes weak
His boldness, slowed down his intuition, he wouldn’t dare to improvise because his prestige
The position and the prestige of the station make thoughts far from his mind, and words
He loses his tongue, falters in his stance, and fails to speak 2.
• It is worth noting here that the Arabs are taller
The races sold, and the most established of them in improvising and creating speeches
They were endowed with sharp intellect, intellect, and leaders, and wondrous acumen, and a splendid statement,
And an unparalleled ability to articulate the art of speech.
• It came in the statement and the explanation: – Everything is for the Arabs, it is an intuition
and improvise. As if it were an inspiration, and there is no suffering, suffering, or respite
Think and do not seek help, but rather it is to direct his concern to talking, and to disgrace
On the day of contention, or when he is praised at the head of a well, or when he is walking with a camel, or when fighting and fighting, or when fighting or in war.
• It is only that he directs his concern to the whole of the madhhab, and to the pillar that
To him he intends, so the meanings come to him in transmission, and the words are sent to him
Then he does not repeat it on himself, and none of his children studies it, and they used to
Amen they do not write, and printed do not cost, and the good speech was
With them he is more visible and more, and they are more powerful and more powerful over him, and each one in himself speaks, and his place in eloquence is loftier, and their orators are shorter, and speec
It is easier for them, and it is easier for them than to lack reservation or
They need to be studied, and they are not like those who memorize the knowledge of others and follow an example
On the words of those before him 3.
• We conclude from this that the art of public speaking is based on understanding and clarification.
The eloquent preacher is the one who is skilled in the art of speech and addresses everyone
People according to their ability, and give each station an article.
: my own.
1- Al-Khatib’s Guide and Researcher’s Guide to Anbar Speechs, Abdul Rahman Al-Mastawi, Beirut, Dar Al-Maarifa, pg
2- Explanation and Explanation: Part 1 –